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[传播学] 【11年传播学笔记大礼包】跨文化交际学基础

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发表于 2010-2-28 22:23:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
这个笔记是我做的最马虎的一门,大体上是根据导读和RECAP来做的,本来想不拿出来丢人了的,但是想或许对大家还是有点帮助的,所以……


Chapter 1

Why study Intercultural communications?
Four trends of the modern world make intercultural communication inevitable:
1. Techological development
2. Globalization of the economy.
3. Widespread population migrations.
4. Development of multiculturalism
Only through the understanding of intercultural communication can people develop a golbal mind-set in the global village that is our world today and live more hamoniously with one another.

The field of intercultural communication has developed both theoretical and applied perspectives.
1. Theoretically, the study focuses on more or less purposive interaction between people of different cultures and different racial and ethnic groups.
2. Practically, intercultural communication is applied in different kinds of intercultural and interethnic training programs to help people of different backgrounds understand and accept each other in academic, business, government, and other settings.



Chapter 2

The relationship between Culture and Communication:
Culture and communication act on each other. As the carrier of culture, commnunication influences the structure of a culture, and culture is necessarily manifested in our communication patterrns by teaching us how we should talk and behave.

Communication:
Communication is defined as an interdetermining process in which we develop a mutually dependent relationship by exchanging symbols.
Communication has four characteristics:
(1)        Communication as a holistic phenomenon
(2)        Communicaiton as a social reality
(3)        Communicaiton as a developmental process
(4)        Communication as an orderly process

Culture:
Culture is defined as a negotiated set of shared symbolic systems that guide individuals’ behaviors and incline them to function as a group.
Culture has four characteristics:
(1)        Culture is holistic
(2)        Culture is learned
(3)        Culture is dynamic
(4)        Culture is pervasive
Culture has two functions:
(1)        It provides a context in which three aspects of human society are embedded: linguistic, physical, psychological.
(2)        It functions to provide the structure, stability, and security that are required for the group and its members to maintain themselves as a healthy system.

Intercultural communication:
Intercultural communication is communication among people from two or more cultures.
Successful intercultural communication is based on the positive feeling and beliefs we bring to the intercultural encounter and on the behavioral skills we possess.
Three forms of intercultural communication based on the interactants’ intentions: Self-centered dialogue, Dominant dialogue, Equal dialogue.



Chapter 3

Perception:
Perception is a process by which we turn external stimuli into meaningful experiences.
The process of perception includes three stages: Selection, Organization, Interpretaion. Because perception is selective, we can only partially perceive the things that surround us, it usually follows three steps: Selective exposure, Selective attention, Selective retention. Organization refers to the way we arrange what we perceive into meaningful patterns, based on their shape, color, texture, size, and intensity. Interpretation is the process whereby we assign meanings to what we perceive.

Culture has a major impact on the perception process: It not only provides the foundation for the meanings we assign to our perceptions, it also determines how we choose to expose ourselves to and direct our attention toward specific kinds of messages and events.

The influence of culture on perception is often reflected in the attributional process.
Attribution involves interpreting the meaning of others’ behaviors based on our past experience or history. Culture provides an environment that allows us to develop all the meanings we possess. Thus, people from different cultures will perceive and interpret others’ behaviors in different ways.

The subjective nature of the perceptual framework arising from our culture indicates that our perception is often partial and inaccurate. The insufficiency manifests as stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.
Stereotypes are those overgeneralized and oversimplified beliefs we use to categorize a group of people.
Prejudice is a regid attitude based on erroneous beliefs or preconceptions.
Discrimination is the acting out of prejudicial attitudes.

Stereotypes an prejudice do not suddenly appear when we are born, they are gradually developed from the process of learning and socialization, and from exposure to mass media images. To solvethe problems of stereotypes and prejudice the most important communication skill we should learn is empathy.

Values:
A value can be defined as a conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristic of a group, of the desirable which influences the selection from available modes, means, and ends of action. Values are guiding forces of human behavior.

Culture value orientation is the concept used to study the relationship between cultural values and communications behaviors, it refers to the means society uses to solve the universal problems of daily life.

Power distance specifies to what extent a culture adapts to inequalities of power distribution in relationships and organizations.
High-power-distance culture tend to orient to authoritarianism, which dictates a hierarchical or vertical structure of social relationships.
Low-power-distance cultures are more horizontal in terms of social relationships.



Chapter 4

Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It consists of five areas of study: Morphology, Phonology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics. Semantics and pragmatics directly affect the process of intercultural communication.

Human language has four characteristics: (1)It’s symbolic; (2)It’s rule-governed; (3)It’s subjective; (4)It often shows change and variation.

Language is a bridge people can use to learn or understand cultural values, and it’s necessary to comprehend cultural values to acquire the language used to portray them. In other words, to be competent in intercultural communication we need to be aware of both the cultural values and the language expressions of our cultural counterparts.



Chapter 5

Verbal and nonverbal communication form the two main contexts of human communication.

Nonverbal communication is different from verbal communication in five respects:
1. It’s not consciously controllable
2. It can indicate multiple events simultaneously
3. It can be used as an intercultural or international language
4. It’s learned earlier in our life.
5. It’s more emotional in expression

Five functions of nonverbal communication: repetition, replacement, emphasis, contradiction, regulation.

Characteristics of nonverbal communication: Nonverbal communication is less systemized and more culturally bound, and its meanings are always ambiguous.

The structure of nonverbal communication is comprised of four areas of study:
1. Kinesics is the study of body movements such as facial expressions, eye contact, hand gestures, and touch.
2. Proxemics is the study of how human beings and animals use space in communication.
3. Paralanguage refers to how we use voice dimensions: voice quality, vocal characterizers, vocal qualifiers, and vocal segregates.
4. Chronemics is the study of how we perceive the concept of time and how that affects our communication.

Nonverbal communication and culture are closely interrelated in two ways:
First, our nonverbal behaviors are dictated by our culture;
Second, culture determines when it’s appropriate time for us to display nonverbal behaviors.
We can improve our intercultural skills in nonverbal communication by following Ricard’s five-step model for the development of nonverbal skills:
1. Assess our learning needs
2. Observe similar situations
3. Use appropriate resources
4. Reach tentative conclusions
5. Reevaluate our conclusions as necessary.



Chapter 6

We develop relationships to meet the social needs of inclusion, control, and affection.

Human relationship has five characteristics:
1. It’s dynamic
2. It’s hierarchical
3. It’s reciprocal
4. It’s unique
5. It’s interdependent and irreplaceable

Theories of relationship development:
1. Social Exchange Theory: Social interaction relationship initiates after measuring the difference between reward and costs.
2. Social Penetration Theory: The development of human relationships is determined by the information we disclose to our partner.
3. Uncertainty Reduction Theory: This theory posits that interpersonal relationships develop and progress when we are able to reduce our uncertainty about each other.
4. Communication Accommodation Theory: It combines propositions from speech accommodation theory and ethnolinguistic identity theory to examine the communicative moves interactants make in social and psychological contexts and how it’s related to personal characteristics.

Yum’s five categories of relationship are used to illustrate the impact of culutral variability on relationship development. The five categories are particularism/universalism, long-term/short-term, ingroup/outgroup, formal/informal, and personal/public relationships. The inluence of cultural value differences are also discussed from the following perspectives: verbal/nonverbal differences, background and attitude information, and the degree of self-disclosure.

Third-Culture-Building: five phases of third-culture building are explicated: intrapersonal intracultural communication, interpersonal intercultural communication, rhetorical intercultural communication, metacultural communication, and intracultural commmunication.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:25:38 | 显示全部楼层
Chapter 7

Conflicts are inevitable in the process of intercultural communication. To have unpleasant feelings during conflict is universal. Conflicts can be considered as seveal levels: intrapersonal conflict, interpersonal conflict, intergroup conflict, and interorganizational conflict.

The impact of culture on conflict and conlict management are discussed from three perspectives: 1. Thinking patterns; 2. Language barriers; 3. Cultural context.

The factors that affect our reactions and decisions in a conflict situation are delineated: face, interrelation, favor, seniority, status, power, credibility, interest, severity of the conflict, and gender.

Two methods for the effective management of intercultural conflicts are suggested.
The first method is based on Harris and Moran’s model of conflict management, which includes five steps: 1.Describe the conflict in a way understood in both cultures; 2,Analyze the conflict from both cultural perspectives; 3.Identify the basis for the conflict from two culural viewpoints; 4.Solve the conflict through synergistic strategies; 5.Determine if the solution is working interculturally.
The second method is based on Ting-Toomey’s suggestions for handling conflicts in individualistic and collectivistic cultures.



Chapter 8

Increasing contact among people from different cultures around the globle demands understanding of the process of intercultural adaptation. Intercultural adaptation refers broadly to the process of increasing our level of fitness to meet the demands of a new cultural environment. It deals with how sojourners or new immigrants experience the distress caused by mismatches or incompatibility between the host culture and the culture of birth. In other words, intercultural adaptation is a process of dealing with maladjustment within a host culture.

What’s Culture shock?
Brief introduction: It’s the reaction of sojourners to problems encountered in the dealings with the host members or culture. It results from the processing of stressful situaions, especially attempts to establish and maintain a relationship with those of the host culture.

Six aspects of Culture shock:
1. A feeling of strain that comes from our attempts at psychological adjustments
2. A feeling of loss regarding friends and family, social status, and possessions
3. A feeling of being rejected by or rejecting the host nationals
4. A feeling of confusion in beliefs, values, and role expectations
5. A generalized feeling of anxiety, disgust, or surprise in the face of cultural differences
6. A feeling of importance for being unable to cope with aspects of the new environment.

Forms of culture shock:
Language shock, role shock, transition shock, culture shock, culture fatigue, education shock, adjustment stress, and culture distance.

Symptoms of culture shock:
Depression, helplessness, hostility to the host country, feelings of anxiety, overidentification with our home country, feelings of withdrawal, homesickness, loneliness, paranoid feelings, preoccupation with cleanliness, irritablity, confusion, disorientation, isolation, tension, need to establish continuty, defensiveness, intolerance of ambiguity, and impatience.

Positive effects of culture shock:
1. It provides a learning opportunity that demands new responses from sojourners in coping with a constantly changing environment.
2. It can creat an environment and serve as a motivational force for us to move to new levels of self-actualization.
3. It can give sojourners a welcome sense of challenge and achievement as a result of dealing with people from very different backgrounds.
4. The amount of learning increases when the level of personal anxiety is aroused to a certain degree.
5. The experience from culture shock produces new ideas
6. This practice helps us to deal with cultures that we have not yet experienced.

Negative effects of culture shock:
1. Affectively, culture shock constitutes an imbalancing experience
2. Cognitively and perceptually, a set of desirable or proper behaviors in one culture might be considered strange in another.

U-curve pattern of intercultural adaptation is comprised of four stages: 1.Honeymoon period; 2.Crisis period; 3.Adjustment period; 4.Biculturalism period.
W-curve pattern is also used to explicate the reentry adapation process.

A dialectical model:
1. Intercultural adaptation is a motivated, goal-oriented process
2.The intercultural adapation and learning processes are reciprocal and interdependent
3.Intercultural adapation implies a stranger-host relationship
4,Intercultural adapation is a cyclical, continuous, and interactive process
5.Intercultural adaptation is ongoing
6.Intercultural adapattion implies personal development.

A transformative learning model: It consists of three dimensions: the precondition to change, the process, and the outcome.



Chapter 10

Intercultural understanding is absolutely vital for people to lead harmonious and meaningful lives together in a culturally pluralistic world.

Four strategies of diversity management for organizations:
1.Managing and rewarding performance based on the foundation of diversity
2.Matching people and jobs
3.Keeping employees informed and involved
4.Supporting diverse work styles and life needs.

Four significant issues regarding multicultural education are considered:
1.Exposure to multicultural perspectives
2.Maintaining cultural indentity
3.Developing intercultural communication skills
4.Diversifying the curriculum

Seven stages of the process of multiculturalism:
1.Monoculturalism
2.Cross-cultural contact
3.Cultural conflict
4.Educational interventions
5.Disequilibrium
6.Awareness
7.Multiculturalism

Intercultural sensitivity is a dynamic and a multidimensional concept describing individual’s active desire to motivate themselves to understand, appreciate, and accept differences among cultures.

The effective way to develop intercultural sensitivity is to take intercultural training process. It aims to develop an appreciation and understanding of cross-cultural differences and to some of the necessary abilities.

Components of Intercultural sensitivity: Ethnorelativism, respect for cultural differences, adaptablity, perspective-taking, open-mindedness, and acknowledgment of other’s needs.



Chapter 11

Only with mastery of intercultural communication competence can persons from different cultures communicate effectively and appropriately.

What’s competence?
Competence is defined as an organization’s capacity to interact effectively with its environment or as the acquired ability to interact effectively.

Communication competence is comprised of two elements: effectiveness and appropriateness.

Intercultural communication competence is defined as the ability to effectively and appropriately execute communication behaviors to elicit a desired response in a specific environment.

Intercultural communication competence has four dimensions:
1.Personality attributes: Including self-concept, self-disclosure, self-awareness, social relaxation
2.Communication skills: message siklls, behavioral flexibility, interaction management, social skills
3.Psychological adjustment: it refers to the ability to acclimate to a new culture
4.Cultural awareness: refers to understanding the conventions of the host culture that affect how people think and behave.



Chapter 12

Goals of intercultural training: We must develop the ability to expand our worldviewby increasing our understanding of culture and its impact on communication behaviors; enhance our ability to recognize and appreciate cultural similarities and differences; and further improve our skills of intercultural communication. Only through the process of intercultural training can we effectively achieve these goals.

Six training models: the classroom model, the simulation model, the self-awareness model, the cultural awareness model, the behavioral model, the interactional model.

Five common techniques used in the trainning models: role playing, case studies, critical incidents, cultural assimilators, simulations, examines the procedures used to evaluate intercultural training programs.



Chapter 13

Ethics can be defined as the science of judging human ends and the relationship of means to those ends, and the art of controlling means so that they will serve specially human ends.

Theories of Ethical study:
Universalism vs. Relativism, Objectivism vs. Subjectivism, Attitudinalism vs. Consequentialism, Deontologism vs. Teleologism.

Principles of ethical intercultural communication:
Mutuality, Nonjudgmentalism, Honesty, Respect.

Ethical rules for intercultural communication:
1.Promote voluntary participation in the interaction
2.Seek individual focus prior to cultural focus
3.Maintain the right to freedom from harm
4.Accept the right to privacy of thought and action
5.Avoid imposing personal biases

The discussion of the future of intercultural communication is divided into three parts.
1.Increasing or decreasing intercultural communication is discussed from domestic and international perspectives.
2.Unity versus division is discussed from two angles: ethnocentrism and gender impact.
3.The future study of intercultural communication is explained from three perspectives: education, business, and research.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:26:46 | 显示全部楼层
中午版本,帮助理解:

第一章.

为什么要学习跨文化交流?
学习跨文化的四个原因(四个趋向)
1.科技发展
2.世界经济全球化
3.大规模人口迁移
4.多元文化主义的发展
面对新的国际形势,研究跨文化交际活动,可以让社会更加和谐的发展,让人能够与更好的与其他文化的人进行交往。





第二章.

文化与交际的关系:
文化与交际相互影响、相互作用,文化影响交际的模式,并在交际模式中呈现出来,交际则影响文化的结构。

交际的概念:
交际指的是一个不确定的过程,人们在其中通过符号交换建立一种相互依存的关系。
交际有四个特征:
交际是一个整体现象
交际是一种社会现实
交际是一个不断发展的过程
交际是一个有序的过程

文化:
文化指的是一系列经过协商的、用于指导个人行为并使他们成为一个整体的共有符号系统。
文化有四个特征:
文化是整体性的
文化是后天习得的
文化是动态发展的
文化是无处不在的
文化有两方面的功能:
它提供一种语境,使人类社会的语言、物质、心理三方面的内容得以深藏其中
文化为群体及其成员提供一种结构、稳定性和安全,使他们凝合为一个良好的运作系统

跨文化交际指的是来自两个或多个不同文化的个人之间的交际。
跨文化交际能否取得成功取决于三要素:
能否在情感层面上拥有积极的情感
能否在认知层面上正确认识文化差异
能否在行为层面上采取合适的行为和技巧
在实践中,跨文化交际依交际者意图的不同表现为三种方式:以自我为中心的对话、一方企图支配他方的对话、平等的对话。





第三章.

感知指的是人们借助感官来感觉世界的积极过程,即他们应用感官把外部刺激转变为有意义的经验知识的过程。
这一过程包括选择、组织、阐释三个阶段。面对纷繁的世界,我们只能选择感知其中的你,选择包括选择性接触、选择性注意和选择性记忆三个步骤。然后,我们按照形状、颜色、质地、大小和密度对选择的事物进行归类,形成有意义的经验,最后赋予这些经验不同的意义。  

文化对感知的重要影响往往反映在归因过程,即我们总是根据过去的经验和历史来理解他人行为的意义。由于文化提供一种语境,让我们从所有的意义中提取想要表达的意义,因此,不同文化的人们常以不同的方式去感知和解释他人的行为。      

由文化差异而产生的感知方式的主观性造成感知不够准确,形成了定型思维、偏见和歧视。
定型思维是指采用过度概括或过分简单化的方式来界定一个群体。
偏见是指建立在错误观念或先人之见基础上的教条化观点
歧视是指有偏见观点的具体实施。

定型思维和偏见不是天生的,而是通过学习过程、社会化和接触媒体等发展而来的,避免定型思维和偏见的最好办法就是学会与他人产生共鸣。

价值观指的是个人或群体特有的对于“什么是好?”的一种显露或隐含的观念,它影响着人们对行为方式、手段和目的的选择。

文化价值取向是用于研究价值观和交际之间关系的概念,它指的是人类解决日常生活中遇到的普遍问题的方式。

权力距离是一种文化与另一种文化相区别的第一个维度,指的是社会承认和接受的权力在组织中的不平等分配的范围。





第四章.

语言学是研究人类语言的科学,它关注的是人类如何使用语言符号进行交际。语言学可以分为形态学、音系学、句法学、语义学和语用学五个领域。语义学和语用学直接影响到跨文化交流过程。

人类语言具有四个特征:
1.语言是一种符号系统
2.语言是由规则规定的
3.语言是主观的
4.语言是动态的,有自己的生命循环

关于语言与文化的关系,萨丕尔、沃尔夫及其支持者认为语言不仅表达思维,而且塑造人的思维、信念和态度,语言决定文化模式;反对者认为语言不是决定思维,而是反映思维,语言表达了文化。

语言是人们学习和理解文化价值观的桥梁,只有理解了文化才能真正掌握用于描述该文化的语言。

形态学:研究词和构词法
音系学:包括语音学和音位学,前者研究如何发音,后者研究不同音的区分
句法学:研究句子和词组的结构
语义学:研究人类语言中的所指和意义
语用学:研究语言对人类行为的影响

方言:某一群体特有的语言,不是全国通用语,它包括宗教语言、社会群体方言和民族方言。
洋泾浜:由于军事占领区的殖民化而产生的用于交际的边缘性语言,其语言和语法结构由几种语言简单拼凑而成。
克里奥语:当洋泾浜拥有本族语人并成为该地区永久性语言后,它就被称为克里奥语。
混杂语:某个地区不同语言群体一致同意用于交际的混合语言。
行话:某个行业为了满足特殊需要而使用的专门术语或技术性语言。
暗语:非主流群体使用的一种秘密或独特的词汇,其意义通常被置换或与原义完全相反。
禁忌语:被禁止或应该被避免使用的词汇。






第五章.

非言语交际与言语交际是人类交际系统的两个组成部分。

非言语交际与言语交际的区别有:
1.非言语交际不是有意识控制的行为
2.多种不同的非言语交际可同时发生
3.部分非言语行为既可用作跨文化语言,也可用作跨国语言
4.非语言行为的学习比言语行为学习更早出现
5.非言语行为在表达时更富有情感

非言语行为的五个功能:重复、代替、强调、抵触、协调。

非语言行为的特征:相对于言语行为来说,非语言行为缺乏系统性;非语言行为具有特定的文化含义;非语言行为具有更多的不确定性。

非言语交际研究包括四个领域:
1. 身姿学研究的是身体动作,如面部表情、目光接触、手势和身体接触。
2. 空间学研究的是人类和动物在交际中的空间使用
3. 副语言研究关注的是交际中声音要素和声音信号的适应
4. 时间学研究的是人类的时间观念及其对交际的影响

非言语行为与文化具有密切关系:非言语行为是由文化规定的;文化决定非言语行为使用的时间。
非言语行为可以通过学习来获得,根据里卡德的模式,其过程包括五个步骤:评估学习需求;观察类似情景;合理运用资源;得出初步结论;必要时重新评估结论。





第六章.

人际关系指的是人们在日常生活中如何处理相互之间的关系。人们形成人际关系是为了满足归属、控制和情感三种社会需求。
人际关系有五个特点:
1. 人际关系是动态发展的
2. 人际关系是一种等级结构
3. 人际关系是相互的
4. 人际关系是独特的
5. 人际关系是相互依存和不可替代的

研究人际关系动态发展过程的理论:
1. 社会交换理论:认为一切交际行为都是在权衡得失后进行的
2. 社会浸透理论:认为人际关系能够发展取决于双方是否向对方敞开心扉
3. 减少不确定性理论:认为只有当双方都能够减少对方的不确定性时,人际关系才能够得到发展
4. 交际顺应理论:融合了言语顺应理论和民族语言认同理论的观点,用于探讨交际者在社交语境和心理语境中采取何种交际行为以及这些行为与交际者个人特征的联系。

于姆认为:由文化差异导致的人际关系发展差异可以分为五种关系模式:单一文化主义/普世文化主义,长期/短期关系,圈内人/圈外人关系,正式/非正式关系,私人/公共关系。文化价值取向的不同还影响了人际关系的形成过程,从避免不确定性策略的角度来看,这些因素有言语/非言语差异、背景信息和态度、自我表露程度等。

“第三方文化构建模式”:根据这一模式,跨文化人际关系发展过程按时间和循环顺序可分为文化内个体内在交流、跨文化人际交流、修辞性跨文化交际、元文化交际和文化内交际。
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:27:25 | 显示全部楼层
第七章.

冲突指的是处于相互依赖关系的个人为了互相满足对方需求或者追求某些工具性目标而产生的分歧。冲突存在于不同层次:个体内在冲突、人际冲突、群体间冲突、组织间冲突。

文化差异对冲突和冲突处理具有重要影响,思维方式、语言和文化语境的差异导致交际过程中冲突产生和处理的方式不同。

在冲突出现和冲突处理过程中,有十个决定性因素会影响我们的行为:面子、相互关系、关照、资历、地位、权力、可信度、利益、冲突的严重性、性别。
面子是指个体投射到人际关系网中的自我形象;相互关系是指双方的关系;关照是指在社会交换过程中个人可作为礼物给与他人的物质和心理资源;资历是因年龄带而带来的权力;地位是指在收入、名望和权力等方面的相对位置;权力是指一方控制的资源受到另一方的推崇;可信度是指一方对另一方的信任;利益是指冲突双方在交际中所涉及的收益;冲突的严重程度是指冲突中潜在的得与失的规模;性别是指两性间的区别对冲突的影响。

处理跨文化交际中的冲突可采取两种办法:一种是哈里斯和莫兰提出的五步骤模式:1.用双方都理解的方式来描述冲突;2.分别从双方文化的角度出发来分析冲突;3.从双方立场出发来确认冲突产生的基础;4.用协同策略解决冲突;5.再次确定冲突的处理办法在跨文化情景中是否有效。另一种是丁允珠所建议的在个体主义和集体主义文化中处理冲突的办法。





第八章.

面对陌生文化,跨文化交际者往往会陷入文化休克。文化休克是指一个人进入到不熟悉的文化环境时,因失去自己熟悉的所有社会交流的符号与手段而产生的一种迷失、疑惑、排斥甚至恐惧的感觉。

文化休克包括几个侧面:
1. 试图进行心理调整时产生的紧张情绪
2. 在朋友和家庭、社会地位和所有权方面产生的失落感
3. 接触异文化情绪或感觉被异文化排斥
4. 在信仰、价值观和角色期望等方面感觉婚论
5. 面对文化差异时总体上感到焦虑、恶心和惊讶
6. 在处理新环境里的各种问题深感无能为力

文化休克的具体形式:语言休克、角色休克、过渡期休克、文化疲劳、教育休克、调整造成的压力、原文化和异文化的差距。

文化休克的症状包括情绪低落、无助、对异文化的敌视、焦虑感、过于认同原文化、畏缩情绪、思想情绪、孤独感、妄想症、洁癖、易怒、感觉混乱、迷失方向、孤立、紧张、建立联系的需求、戒备心理、不能容忍不确定性、缺乏耐心等。

文化休克产生的积极影响:
1. 为交际者提供学习异文化的机会,促使他们作出新的回应
2. 为交际者提供动力,促使他们在新的层次上实现自我
3. 给予交际者挑战感和成就感
4. 文化休克导致的焦虑感使交际者学得更多
5. 促使交际者形成新观念
6. 有助于交际者学会处理异文化的新现象

文化休克的消极影响:
1. 在情感上,文化休克打破了交际者的心理平衡
2. 在认知和感知上,符合原文化规定的行为在另一文化中可能被认为是奇怪的,交际者很难在短期内解决这一问题。

能否克服文化休克并顺利进行交际在很大程度上取决于交际者能否迅速适应对方文化。
跨文化适应过程包括疏远、边缘性、文化适应、双重性四个维度。

跨文化适应的阶段:
吕斯高的U型模式:蜜月期、危机阶段、调整阶段、双文化阶段
古拉洪的W型模式:对U型模式进行延伸,使其包含了回归阶段。

对文化适应的研究有两种理论:
安德森的逻辑论证模式:
1. 跨文化适应是一个有意识的、有目标的过程
2. 跨文化适应和学习过程是相互作用和相互依存的
3. 跨文化适应隐含着一种陌生人——主人的关系
4. 跨文化适应是一个循环、连续、互动的过程
5. 跨文化适应是一个发展的过程
6. 跨文化适应意味着个人的发展
泰勒的转换学习模式包括转换的前提条件、由十个阶段构成的转换过程和结果三个维度。





第十章.

从工作环境来看,文化多元性问题体现在四个侧面:
1.美国劳工部报告显示未来劳动人口的结构和特征将完全不同于现在
2.女性劳动人口将不断增加,并对公司的正常运转产生影响
3.劳动人口的民族构成将越来越多元化
4.跨文化培训将成为公司日常工作的重要部分之一

解决办法:
1.行为管理和行为奖赏应以多元化为基础
2.尽量为雇员分配最合适的工作
3.让雇员参与管理并由知情权
4.支持多样化的工作方式和生活需求

从教育的角度来看,处理文化多元化问题应注意:
1.让学生更多接触多元化的文化环境
2.让学生保持自己的文化认同并尊重多样化的文化价值观
3.培养跨文化交际技能
4.课程设置力求多样化

文化多元化过程包括七个阶段:一元文化主义、跨文化接触、文化冲突、教育干预、文化失衡、跨文化意识、多元文化主义

要最终达到多元文化主义就必须具备跨文化敏感性。跨文化敏感性指的是“一种顺应、理解和欣赏文化差异的内在积极动力,能促进交际者培养适当而有效的跨文化交际行为”。
培养跨文化敏感性的有效途径之一就是跨文化培训。
跨文化敏感性的构成要素有:民族相对主义、尊重文化差异、文化适应能力、视角转换、思想开放、承认别人的需求。





第十一章

交际能力由有效性和恰当性两个要素构成。有效性是指个体与周围环境进行有效交流的能力,恰当性是指在特定环境中运用合适的交际行为进行交际的能力。

跨文化交际能力是指在不同文化环境中有效和适当运用交际行为以获得预期回应的能力。

跨文化交际能力包括四个维度:
1.个人品质:包括自我表露、自我意识、自我概念和社交情绪舒缓
2.交际技能:信息交流技能、社交技能、行为灵活性、互动能力
3.心理调整能力:对挫败感、心理压力、疏远和不确定性等进行调整的能力
4.文化意识能力:对社会价值、社会风俗、社会规范、社会系统等进行认识的能力





第十二章

跨文化培训可以使我们拓展视野,进一步理解文化及其对交际的影响,提高识别和欣赏文化的相似性与差异性的能力,增强自身的跨文化技能。



第十三章

伦理学是研究如何评判人们的目的以及目的与手段之间关系的科学。

伦理学的研究角度包括:普遍主义/相对主义,客观主义/主观主义,主观论/结果论,义务论/目的论

合乎伦理的跨文化交际研究的基本准则包括:相互性、不进行价值判断、有诚信、相互尊重等方面。

跨文化交际的道德准则:
1.促使各方自愿参与交际
2.尽量从个人角度而不是文化角度来理解交际行为
3.确保拥有免受伤害的权力
4.承认思维和行动的隐私权
5.避免把个人看法强加于人

跨文化交际的未来:
首先,跨文化交际活动将越来越频繁;其次,世界文化将朝着同一和分化两个维度发展;最后,未来的跨文化交际研究将得到进一步发展。
发表于 2010-3-23 13:28:05 | 显示全部楼层
May   god   bless  you!
发表于 2010-5-23 22:40:05 | 显示全部楼层
跨文化交际学基础跟跨文化交际动力这两本书不一样吧?
发表于 2010-5-24 06:20:03 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 coober 于 2010-5-23 22:40 发表
跨文化交际学基础跟跨文化交际动力这两本书不一样吧?



肯定是同一系列的两本书嘛。以前用动力的。09 10 都用基础的。11的趋势不用说咯。不过内容大同小异。传说貌似基础更易懂?
 楼主| 发表于 2010-5-26 01:48:03 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 joyokok 于 2010-5-24 06:20 发表



肯定是同一系列的两本书嘛。以前用动力的。09 10 都用基础的。11的趋势不用说咯。不过内容大同小异。传说貌似基础更易懂?

joy正解。  基础是比动力简单啦,之前我问过以前用动力的学长的,所以我们还算较之前幸福s50onion
发表于 2010-5-26 10:01:29 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 炎と永远 于 2010-5-26 01:48 发表

joy正解。  基础是比动力简单啦,之前我问过以前用动力的学长的,所以我们还算较之前幸福s50onion



无聊的时候把动力也看一遍吧s39onion
发表于 2010-6-5 10:37:12 | 显示全部楼层
跨文化交际看的我眼花了~
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