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[传播学] 【11年传播学笔记大礼包】广告英语教程

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发表于 2010-2-28 22:10:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
广英的笔记做了2个版本,第一次做的太详细,好多意义不大的也囊括进来了,所以后面又重新做了一次,尽量结合书本上的知识点,也结合了去年论坛师兄发的一个电子版里的一些东西,比我的第一个版本简单了很多,这里给大家的是第二次的笔记,希望对大家有所帮助~

TIPS:广英的课文不需要去背诵,但一定要熟悉和理解!关于名词解释类的一定要背!

支持打包下载,需要同学请加扣扣。所有英文字母都是本人一个一个敲出来的,所以拿走的同学请回帖,这是对LZ劳动的一种尊重s16onion






Unit 1 The dimensions of Advertising

1. Definition of advertising: Advertising is any of various methods used by a company to increase the sales of its products or services or to promote a brand name, and it’s aslo used by organizations and individuals to communicate an idea, to recruit staff, to publicize an event, or to locate an item or commodity.
So, simply we can define advertising as a process of non-personal communication, process of public relations, an economic and social process of information and persuasion process.

2. The aim of Advertising: It’s usually designed to win consumers through persuasion, or promote products which include goods, services and ideas.

3. Two basic types of advertising: Informative advertising and Persuasive advertising.

4. Target audience refers to the people who most suited to the product which can be divided into different parts ranging from wealthy professionals to students, the retired, and the unemployed.

5. Market research is important because it can measure the success of the advertising and it’s a necessary preparation for the design of advertisements.

6. Feedback is the response from the consumer that could verify whether the message was received and understood.

7. Source dimensions:
(1)Sponsor: people who pays for the ads.
(2)Designer: who designs the advertisement
(3)Spokesperson: who gives voice and appears in the ad to convey the message to the audience.

8. Message dimensions:
(1)Autobiographical messages: are those of “I” tell a story to “you”
(2)Narrative message: a third person tells a story about others to an imagined audience.
(3)Drama: characters act out events directly in front of an imagined audience.

9. Receiver dimensions:
(1)Implied consumers: particular groups of people imagined by the advertisers to be the audiences of a particular ad.
(2)Sponsorial consumers: people who decides the ad will be run or not.
(3)Actual consumers: people who really watch the ad in the real world.

Understand:
Why Advertising is a non-personal communication? Because it’s directed to groups of people instead of individuals.

Not all advertisements are aimed at all people. WHY? Advertisements must appeal to a target audience who most suited to their product.

On the contrary, advertising can be also seen as a hindrance to perfect competition. WHY? It attempts to make distinctions between similar products.

The advertising communication process: The process starts when one party(the source) encodes a thought to a message and sends it through some channel to another party(the receiver), the receiver decode the message to understand it and then responds his feedback.



Unit 2 The evolution of Advertising

1. The ancient period: Most messages were actually delivered by criers who stood on street conrners shouting the wares of the sponsor. Information rather than persuation was the objective of the early commercial message.

2. The age of print: Began with the invention of the printing press. The invention of moveable type moved society toward mass communication. The early print ad included posters, handbills and classified ad in newspapers, messages were simple and informative.

3. The formative years: Agencies had taken on the role of convincing manufacturers to advertise their products. Ads had assumed a more complete informational role.

4. Modern advertising: Advertising industry had become a major force in marketing and had achieved a significant level of respect and esteem

Understand:
“Soft-sell” advertising: Such advertisement which use a series of soft way to persuade consumers by creating images through a slow accumulation of positive messages.
“Hard-sell” advertising: Such advertisement which promoting its product by direct way.

Why does advertising develop so rapidly in modern society?
Advertising was spawned by a market-driven system and grew through self-interest in capitalistic, free enterprise market economics.
Efficient methods of production made advertising essential as a demand simulation tool.
Urbanization, transportation expansion, and communications advancements all facilitated the use and growth of advertising.

When did modern advertising really begin? Why?
In the 1880s, because the output increased and the costs decreased by the new methods of manufacturing and the development of transportation, manufacturers and the sellers needed to promote their products and goods better for the aim of profitability.

What’s the situation of the American marketing system and advertising before and after 1880s?
Before 1880s the American marketing system had been characterized by an intricate set of wholesalers, jobbers and retailers, and the wholesaler was king; After 1800s, manufacturers could package their products, brand and advertise, national advertisers began to provide services for them which could make their standards of conduct higher than before.

Through most of the nineteenth century what consumer product was advertised most widely?
Patent medicines. The advertisement was often extravagantly false claims, but the companies always depended upon repeat-purchase behavior and thus upon building a bond of trust with the consumer, so they eschew the blatant falsehoods made by purveyors.



Unit 3 Advertising&Marketing process

1. The martketing mix approach is one model of crafting and implementing marketing strategies.

2. Marketing mix: a combination of factors that can be controlled by a company to influence consumers to purchase its products.

3. The target market: A target market is the market segment which a particular product is marketed to. It’s often defined by age, gender and/or socio-economic grouping.

4. The importance of Marketing:
(1)A business is generally doomed to failure if it does not look at the product through the eyes of the consumer.
(2)A successful marketing depends upon a salable price which the right consumer would be willing to buy and the right marketplace where the consumer can buy it, and a good advertisement to convince consumer to buy it.
(3)Many work is required for the planning, development, and the implementation of an overall marketing program, before designing any form of advertising.

5. Questions for marketers to consider concerning the marketing mix?(4P’s)
(1)Product: Whether the product satisfy the consumer’s needs and also be competitive when comparing with other products.
(2)Price: Whether the price of product is competitive so that consumer would be willing to buy.
(3)Place: Whether the product is well sold in the right places which is convenient for consumer to see and to buy.
(4)Promotion: Whether the competitive benefit of product is well persuasively communicated to the right consumer.

6. The two requirements for the product, or the inadequate product will soon come to an demise even with an effective advertising, and the greatest advertising plan will absolutely fail:
(1)the product must offer a competitive benefit at a price the consumer is willing to pay;
(2)the product is in distribution.

7. Good marketing is always the basis for good advertising,

Understand:
1. The 4 P’s look at marketing from the perspective of the marketer.

2. The 4 C’s: converting Product into “customer solution”, converting Price into “cost to the consumer”, converting Place into “convenience”, converting Promotion into “communication”.
These C’s reflect a more client-oriented marketing philosophy and provide useful reminders. And it also provides a handy framework for marketing analysis.

3. Why marketing texts still tend to use 4P’s to describe the elements of the mix instead of 4C’s ?
The 4C’s reflect a client-oriented philosophy but the marketing mix is too product-oriented, and the 4C’s are also not so memorable as the 4P’s.

4. Borden devised a model with 12 decision variables: planning, pricing, branding, channels of distribution, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, fact finding.

5. Albert Fray classified the marketing variables into 2 categories: the offering and the process variables.
The “offering” consist of the product, service, packaging, brand, and price.
The “process” or “method” variables included advertising, promotion, sales promotion, personal selling, publicity, distribution channels, marketing research, strategy formation, and new product development.

6. The marketing mix model is often expanded to include sub-mixes, for example the promotion variable can be further decomposed into a promotional mix. And within the promotional mix advertising can be further broken down into an “advertising media mix”.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:11:44 | 显示全部楼层
Thinking:
1. Small is better when selecting segments to target in marketing strategies, WHY?
My answer: According to the principle of Market Segmentation, selecting a small target market will better and easier fit the consumers and satisfy their needs by selling products throughout a particular way.

2. Advertising strategies are followed by marketing strategies, WHY?
My answer: Because the good marketing strategies is always the basis for good advertising strategies by laying a solid foundation for the formation of advertising strategies, effective advertising strategies can only come from effective marketing strategies.

3. The positioning strategy adopted for a brand would need to be supported by all other elements of the marketing mix. WHY?
My answer: Because the progress which could only lead a new brand to success always depends upon every aspect of the marketing mix such as product planning, channel of selling, advertising and promotion.




Unit 4 Marketing communication tools

1.        The communication mix is a marketing communication tool.
2.        Personal communication includes personal contact with customers, which may be letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations and email.
3.        Non-personal Communication use some medium as an intermediary for communicating ,including: Advertising, Direct Marketing, Public Relations, Collateral Materials, Sales Promotion.
4.        Advertising is sometimes called mass selling or non-personal selling. Its usual purpose is to inform, persuade and remind customers about particular products and services.
5.        Advertising works best with differentiated products, and it doesn’t work efficiently for undifferentiated products like raw materials and commodities.
6.        An advertising’s success is based upon: \
(1)        High primary demand trend.
(2)        Chance for significant product differentiation,
(3)        Hidden qualities highly important to consumers,
(4)        Opportunity to use strong emotional appeals,
(5)        Substantial budgets to spport advertising.
7.        Direct Marketing refers to the selling process that is like taking the store to the consumer, it builds and maintains its own database of consumers and uses a variety of media to communicate with those consumers. And it’s well-suited to highly-targeted marketing efforts.
8.        Telemarketing is a dierect marketing technique which person-to-person phone contact makes the sale. Telemarketing is a component of Direct Marketing.
9.        Direct Marketing has four distinctive characteristics: Nonpublic, immediate, customized, interactive.
10.        Public Relations are used to inform various audiences about the company and its products and build corporate credibility and image. Publicity (news releases, media advertisements, feature stories) and special events (open houses, factory tours, grand openings) for instance.
11.        Collateral Materials include booklets, catalogs, brochures, films,sale kits, annual reports.
12.        The function of Sale promotion: it supplements the basic mechanisms of the marketing mix by stimulating channel members or prospective cunstomers to some immediate, overt behavior in a short period of time. Trade deals, free samples, displays, contests, sweepstakes, cent-off coupons for instance.

Understand:
1.        The difference between Advertising and Publicity: Advertising is never institutional and Publicity is usually institutional in character.
2.        Sales promotion is defined as a direct inducement which offers an extra value or incentive for the product to the sales force distributors or to ultimate consumer, and its primary objective is to create an immediate sale.
3.        Relationship marketing requires sharing information, working toward the same goal, mutual trust, cost-effective link between customer and salesperson.
4.        The product life cycle includes five courses:
Pre-Introduction: Light advertising, pre-introduction publicity;
Introduction: Heavy use of advertising, public relations for awareness, sales promotion for trial;
Growth: Advertising, public relations, branding and brand marketing, personal selling for distribution;
Maturity: Advertising decreases, sales promotion, personal selling, reminder and persuation;
Decline: Advertising and public relations decrease, limited sales promotion, personal selling for distribution.

The product life cycle can be understood as a new product progresses through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity, and decline. This sequence is known as the product life cycle and is associated with changes in the marketing situation, thus impacting the marketing strategy and the marketing mix.

Thinking:
1.        Marketing communication is a systematic relationship between a business and its market.
2.        There are 12 different communication tools available to the marketer in total: Personal selling, Advertising, Sales promotion, Direct martketing, Public relations, Sponsorship, Exhibitions, Packaging, Point-of-sale, Merchandising, The Internet, Word of mouth and corporate identity. And these communication tools consitute the marketing communication mix.
3.        What’s the uses of the Web while regarded as a communication tool? It was mainly used to inform the market, to demonstrate products, and to provide online material to the customers.



Unit 5 Intergrated marketing communications

Disscussion:
1.        Intergrated Marketing Communications is both a concept and a process.
2.        Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
3.        Database marketing is a marketing strategy used by collecting data of consumer’s behavior and shopping patterns as a data storage for the marketing activities.
4.        The marketing mix is the controllable elements of product, promotion, price, and place which are used to facilitate exchange in a marketplace.
5.        The central theme of the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications is that all of an organization’s marketing and promotional elements and activities communicate with its customers.
6.        There are two types of marketing planning models today which are Top-down Marketing Planning Model, Bottom-up Marketing Planning Model. (Understand the difference between Top-down and Bottom-up Marketing Planning Model.)
7.        The IMC approach is to integrate the various communication functions in a strategic way.
8.        Top-down Marketing Planning Model has four main elements which are situation analysis, marketing objectives, marketing strategy, and marketing tactics (or action programs). The tranditional Top-down Marketing Plan is the most common planning format.
9.        Bottom-up Marketing Planning Model has three main elements which are marketing tactics, marketing strategy, and marketing result. Bottom-up Marketing Plan is used for small companies to enable entrepreneurs to find unique tactics to expliot. (A comparison use the tactics as the nail while the strategy is used as the hammer)
10.        IMC Planning perceives all the actions of a company as communications.

Text:
1.        Why is the IMC approach welcomed by most marketers? The most fundamental reason is that marketers are recognizing the value of strategically integrating the various communication functions rather than having them operate autonomously.
2.        The movement toward IMC is also being driven by changes in ways companies market their products and services.
3.        There’s a ongoing revolution that is changing the rules of marketing and the role of tranditonal media advertising. This revolution includes: 1.A shifting of marketing dollars from media advretising to other forms of promotion; 2.A movement away from relying on advertising-focused approaches to solve communication problems; 3.A shift in marketplace power from manufacturers to retailers; 4.The rapid growth of database marketing; 5.The demand for greater accountability from advertising agencies and the way they are compensated; 6.The rapid growth of the Internet.
4.        Why is the growth of the IMC likely to continue? It’s being driven by fundamental changes in the way companies market their prodcuts and services resulting from the revolution, moreover many marketers and advertising agencies recognize the importance of taking an IMC approach and are becoming advocates of integration. And the move to intergrated marketing communications also reflects an adapation by marketers to a changing environment, particularly with respect to consumers, technology and media.
5.        What changes are occuring among consumers? Respect to media use and patterns of buying and shopping.
6.        What’s the new ways created to reach consumers? The continued fragmentation of media markets, the rapid growth of interactive media, and the online services.
7.        Though IMC has its critics and may undergo some changes, the tranditional system that advertising in mass media domininates and advertising and other forms of promotion function autonomously.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:12:34 | 显示全部楼层
Understand:
1.        Advertisers or clients are the key participants, they ultimately pay the bill and have the final say regarding approval of the proposed promotional programs.
2.        The advertising agency is an external organization specializing in the creation, production and placement of the communications messages, and some additional services designed to facilitate the marketing effort.
3.        Media organizations provide the advertiser with a channel for their communications, which may include print, broadcast, outdoor, etc., and attempt to provide the advertiser with the proper environment for the message.
4.        Marketing communication specialist organizations provide services in specific areas of marketing communications, which may include direct response agencies, sales promotion agencies, public relations firms and interactive agencies.
5.        Collateral services participants are those who provide a wide range of support services including marketing research, package design firms, consultants,



Uit 6 Advertising research

1.        Advertising research can provide advertising agency with imformation about what product image would be most credible to consumers.
2.        Advertiser use pre-testing to increase the probability of preparing the most effective advertising messages by detecting and eliminating flaws and gaps in message content.
3.        Marketing research is used to identify consumer needs, develop new products, evaluate pricing levels, assess distribution methods, and test the effectiveness of various promotional strategies.
4.        The function or importance of research:
(1)        It provides the factual foundation for making intelligent marketing and advertising plans.
(2)        Both strategy makers and advertisers use a variety of research techniques to prepare themselves for their task.
(3)        They aslo use research to test strategies and different versions of a concept or approach.
(4)        After the ad campaign has run, research is used to evaluate its success.
5.        Strategic research commonly include four aspects: marketplace, consumer, corporate, product research.
6.        Two important types of marketing research: Market research is used to gather imformation about a specific market and Consumer research focus on how consumers think, feel, decide and behave.
7.        Intelligence about consumers is derived from two different types of research: Qualitative studies (to understand how and why people think and behave as they do, conveyed in words, such as In-depth intervies, Focus group) and Quantitative studies (amass amount of numerical data such as exposures to ads, purchases and other marketing-related events, expressed in numbers, such as Survey research, Content analysis, Experimental research)



Unit 7 Consumer behavior

1.        Consumers are people who buy or use products that could be actually devided into two types: those who shop for and purchase the product, and those who actually use the product.
2.        What’s Consumer behavior? It’s defined as “Those acts of individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services, including the decision process that precedes and determines these acts”.
3.        The facts that influence the consumer decision-making process include: Evaluation of alternatives, Motivation, Family and society, Time and place.
4.        The factors that influence consumer behavior/decision can be devided into two aspects: External environment (Culture, Subculture, Social class, Social group, Family) and Internal states (Perception, Learning, Motivation, Personality, Life-style, Attitudes).
5.        External environment impact on the manner of consumers in decision process in the marketplace. These influences can be classified as cultural and social:
(1)        Cultural influences: Include those of a large society or subcultures.
(2)        The definition of Culture. Culture is defined as a complex of tangible items plus intangible concepts that define a group of people or a way of life, which are learned and passed down from one generation to the next.
(3)        Norms are the boundaries that culture establishes for behavior, which are simple rules that we know intuitively and that specify or prohibit certain behaviors.
(4)        Social influences: The behavior patterns produced by individuals’ beliefs and values tend to vary depending on the social structure withi which they operate. Social structures are influenced by social class and social groups, including family.
6.        Internal states: The motives or needs are internal forces that prompt behavior toward solutions.
(1)        Biological needs are basic conditions necessary to the maintenance of life and the normal processes of healthy growth and reproduction.
(2)        Psychogenic needs are less objectly described as personal security, self-confidence, group status, and prestige.
(3)        Motives are inner states that energize, activate move and direct behavior toward goals. Motives always affect behavior while needs do not have to.
7.        The value for advertiser to study consumer behavior: it will enable them to find out their target groups and understand the consumer behavior of these groups in the marketplace.
8.        Msslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, need for self-actualization. Maslow stresses that a lower need must be satisfied before the next higher need can fully emerge, howerver, each lower need does not have to be fully satisfied for the next higher need to emerge.
9.        Social motives theory: It believes that the basis for an individual’s motivation stems from his social environment.



Unit 8 Advertising strategy&planning

1.        Advertising is both an art and a science, what does the art come from and what does the science come from? The art comes from writing, designing and producing exciting messages. The science comoes from strategic thinking.
2.        What are the three levels in advertising planning?
(1)        Corporate Advertising Plan: it’s developed annually and may be a part of the overall marketing plan.
(2)        Campaign Plan: it’s used to direct an ad campaign and summarizes the underlying strategy for this major effort.
(3)        Creative Platform: it also may be developed on a one-time basis for an individual ad.
3.        A marketing plan describes how all the elements, 4P’s, should be employed to maximize the impact of the total effort.
4.        An advertising plan matches the right audience to the right message and presents it in the right medium to reach that audience.
5.        An advertising strategy refers to the development of a plan for persuative communication.
6.        The 80-20 rule helps explain how and why planners target their market as tightly as possible: In many product categories, 20 percent of the consumers buy 80 percent of the product, and the goal of targeting is to zero in on that 20 percent.
7.        Seven strategic decisions are particularly important to advertising because they guide the development of both the creative and the media plans:
(1)        The problem to be solved by the advertising message.
(2)        The communication opportunities available to turn the problem.
(3)        The communication objectives to be accomplished.
(4)        The audience group to be targeted.
(5)        The competitive product advantage.
(6)        The product’s personality.
(7)        The available position in the marketplace.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:13:40 | 显示全部楼层
Unit 9 Creative strategy

1.        The function of an advertising message is to communicate information about a company’s product or service, to motivate a cunsumer to take action, to shape consumers, desires and goals, to creat images that can position a brand in the consumer’s mind.
2.        The Creative Stragegy Statement is essentially an extension and elaboration of a brand’s marketing strategy principles into the brand’s advertising or creative area.
3.        The creative strategy is used as a guide in the development of advertising and as a benchmark of evaluating advertising.
4.        Creative strategy should be thought of as long-term strategy because one of the purposes of this statement is to give continuity to the advertising program over a period of time.
5.        Four kinds of ideas will ordinarily appear in a creative strategy:
(1) A concise statement of the principal benefit offered by the product;
(2) A statement of the principal characteristic of the product which makes it possible to claim this benefit, that is the reason why this benefit exists and has meaning to the target group.
(3) A statement of the character or personality which is to be built for the product and which will be reflected in the mood, tone, and overall atmosphere of the advertising.
(4) A statement of what the product is and how to use it.
6.        The creative development end execution of the advertising message are a crucial part of a firm’s IMC program and are the key to the success of a marketing campaign.
7.        Creativity in advertising is a process of several stages, including preparation, incubation, illumination, verification, and revision.
8.        An important part of creative strategy is determining the major selling idea that will become the central theme of the campaign.



Unit 10 Advertising execution

1.        Demonstration is an advertising execution approach designed to illustrate key advantages of features of a product by showing it in actual use.
2.        Advertising execution refers to the form of completing advertisement. The process is that after the selling remise agreeed upon and the BIG IDEA has been developed, then it must be translated into an ad.
3.        What’s syntax? It’s the harmonious arrangement of the sequece of the symbols such as the words, pictures, and sounds of the message.
4.        Advertising Pyramid is a model for setting advertising objectives based on how people typically behave. And it’s similar to copywriter’s pyramid.
5.        Copywriter’s Pyramid uses a similar, five-step structure, with only a slight variation in terminology.
6.        The purpose of copywriting is to persuade or remind people to take some action to satisfy a need or want.
7.        How to persuade people (consumer) to take action? The copywriter must first get people’s attention by using large type and provocative visuals, and then stimulate the prospect’s interest in the product and build credibility for the product claims, and focus on generating desire and finally on stimulating action. These five elements should be present in every ad or commercial.
8.        The key to good body copy are simplicity, order, credibility, and clarity.
9.        Four basic format elements are used to construct body copy: The lead-in paragraph, Interior paragraphs, Trial close, Close.



Unit 11 Advertising media

1.        Major media decisions in advertising are those that relate to media selection and media scheduling.
2.        The choice of media is determined by examining such factors as the firm’s marketing requirements, advertising requirements, and productive requierements, as well as evaluating the different characteristics of specific media.
3.        Media planning is the process of designng a strategic course of action that shows how advertising space and time can be used to present the message in order to achieve the advertiser’s goals.
4.        What lead to the growing importance of media strategy? The proliferation of the types of media available, the variation in the ways messages can be communicated, the increase in competitive distractions.
5.        The development of a media plan involves what (Steps)? A statement of objectives, a determination of strategy, a budgetary breakdown, a discussion of rationale for recommendatons as welll as alternative suggestions, an analysis for competitive activity, the presentation of supporting documentation.
6.        What criteria (principle) are available for evaluatiing the media plan? Cost per thousand (CPM), reach, frequency, impressions, gross rating points.
7.        Successful media planning requires incorporating a great deal of information and data into media decision making, which can be devided into four aspects: Company or brand sources, Marketplace sources, Message sources, Media sources.

Understand:
1.        High cost of production and air time is the greatest handicap of broadcast television as an advertising medium.
2.        Outdoor advertising offers the lowest cost per exposure of any major advertising medium.
3.        Most of newspaper advertising revenues come from local advertising.



Unit 12 Public Relations

1.        The purpose of public relations is to favorably influence public opinion, build goodwill, and establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship for the organization.
2.        Definition of PR: PR is a management function that focuses on the relationships and communications that individuals and organizations have with their constituent groups to create mutual goodwill.
3.        The public relation function in a firm, usually handled by an outside agency, is prepared to engage in positive public relations efforts and to deal with any negative events related to a firm’s activities.
4.        There are six primary objectives of the PR:
(1)        Promoting goodwill;
(2)        Promoting a product or a service;
(3)        Preparing internal communications;
(4)        Counteracting negative publicity;
(5)        Lobbying.
(6)        Giving advice and counsel.
5.        The actual process of conducting public relations and integrating it into the promotional mix involves a series of tasks, The first step is to determine and evaluate public attitudes, which provides input into the planning process and increases the effectiveness of the communication. Secondly, establish a PR plan.
6.        The PR plan can be carried out in a four-step process:
(1)        Define public relations problems;
(2)        Plan and program;
(3)        Take action and communicate;
(4)        Evaluate the program.
7.        The key tools which make positive use of public relations include press releases, feature stories, company newsletters, interviews and press conferences, sponsored events, and publicity.
8.        The advantages of PR include:
(1)        Credibility;
(2)        Cost;
(3)        Avoidance;
(4)        Lead generation;
(5)        Ability to reach specific groups;
(6)        Image building.
9.        The disadvantages of PR:
(1)        The major disadvantage of PR is the potential for not completing the communications process. While PR messages can break through the clutter of commercials, receivers may not make the connection to the source.
(2)        PR may misfire through mismanagement and a lack of coordination with the marketing dept.
10.        MPR refers to those PR activities designed to support marketing objectives, like raising awareness, informing and educating, giving consumers a reason to buy, and motivating consumer acceptance. MPR adds value to the integrated marketing program in a number of ways: building marketplace excitement before media ad breaks; creating ad news where there is no product news; introducing a product with little or no ad; influencing the infuencials; defending products at risk and giving consumers a reason to buy.
11.        PR strategies can be categorized as proactive or reactive, involving different orientations to PR. Proactive PR strategy is dictated by marketing objectives, seeks to publicize a company and its brands, and takes the offensive rather than the defensive. Reactive PR strategy is dictated by influences outside the control of a company, focuses on problems to be solved rather than opportunities, and requires a company to take defensive measures.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:14:28 | 显示全部楼层
Unit 13 Advertising Agency

1.        What fanctions or services does an advertising agency offer? Account services, Marketing services, creative services, media-buying services, and agency management which also determines the basic structure of ad agencies.
2.        Advertising agencies play a key role in the advertising process by translating the advertisers’ goals into creative messages that are placed with the media to reach the target audience.
3.        What is an advertising agency defined by AAAA? It’s an independent organization of creative people and business people that specialize in developing and perparing marketing and advertising plans, advertisements, and other promotional tools.
4.        Two types of advertising agencies: Advertising agencies are generally devided into two categories: Full-service agencies and Specialized service agencies.
5.        A creative boutique provides only creative services.
6.        A media buying service is an independent organization that specializes in selecting media to fit the advertiser’s strategy, and buying the specific time and space, particularly on radio and TV.
7.        What’s the function of the interactive agencies? It helps advertisers prepare communications for new media like the Internet, CD-ROMs, and interactive television, and maintain computer file servers, managing the interactive communication with clients and buliding databases for clients’ future use.
8.        The in-house agency is referred to as the advertising department of a firm.
9.        There are four distinct stages of the life cycle of the agency/client relationship: Prerelationship, Development, Maintenance, Termination.
10.        Factors influence the client/agency relationship: The following are some common reasons agencies lose clients, grouped into four Cs:
(1)        Chemistry. The conflicts of personality or interests may result in unsatisfactory cooperation.
(2)        Communication. Poor communication will make two sides fail to sustain a favorable working relationship.
(3)        Conduct. Poor performance or services, unrealistic demands from the client, declining sales and conflicting compensation philosophies tend to give a kiss of death to the relationship.
(4)        Changes. Changes in size of the client or agency, changes in the client’s corporate/marketing strategy, personnel changes and changes in policies are all factors making the agency/client relationship unstable.



Unit 14 Advertising ethics

1.        Ethics are moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group.
2.        Ethical issues in advertising can be categorized as either ethical dilemma or ethical lapses.
3.        An ethical dilemma is an unresolved ethical question in which each of the conflicting sides can make an arguable case.
4.        An ethical lapse occurs when normally ethical people make unethical decisions.
5.        Young children are especially vulnerable to advertising. WHY? 1. They cannot differentiate between commercials and programs; 2. They donot perceive the selling intent of comercials; 3. They cannot distinguish between reality and fantasy.
6.        The three hottest ethical issues in advertising? Advertising unhealthy products, Advertising to children, Advertising using puffery.



Unit 15 Advertising regulation

1.        There are three primary groups which regulate advertising in the turest sense: Consumers, Industry organizations, Government bodies.
2.        There are three basic areas of advertising regulation: The content of of advertisements, Competitive issues, Advertising to children.
3.        There are mainly three regulatory parts involved in the regulation of advertising: Government regulation, Non-government regulation, Industry self-regulation.
4.        What’s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) responsible for? It’s responsible for protecting consumers and competitors from deceptive advertising and unfair business practices.
5.        Non-government advertising regulators are from consumer groups, business groups, and the media.
6.        Self-regulation of advertising emanates from all segments of the advertising industry, including advertisers and their agencies, business and advertising associations, and the media.



Unit 16 International advertising

Discussion:
1.        Factors such as size of the population, age distribution, education, and income levels are part of a country’s demographic characteristics.
2.        PR is the management function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
3.        Advertising is advertising that targets people in other countries.
4.        Advertisers consider two basic approaches, one is globalization which means to develop a single strategy and implement it in multiple countries, the other is localization, which means to develop a unique ad or a unique variation on a generic ad for each country.

Text:
1.        Why is difficult for marketers to adopt an international perspective? Because international advertising reaches across national and cultural boundaries.
2.        Advertising is totally a cutural product, and international advertising is a cross-cultural communicaiton.
3.        Today many agencies apply a “Think globally, act locally” approach by standardizing their products and basic marketing strategy but localizing their advertising messages, this approach recognizes similar desires, goals ,needs, and uses for products and services but tailors advertising to the local cultures and conditions in each market.

1.        International ad targets people in other countries. Globalization, which means to develop a single strategy and implement it in multiple countries, even to the point of providing ready-to-use ads; localization, which means to develop a unique ad or a unique variation of a generic ad for each country.
2.        Adopting an international perspective is difficult for marketers, since int’l ad reaches across national and cultural boundaries. Culture is a set of values, rituals and behaviors that defines a way of life, which is invisible to those who are immersed within it. Ad is totally a cultural product, and international ad is cross-cultural communication.


Addition:
Top-down: The traditional top-down marketing plan is the most common planning format. It has four main elements: situation analysis, marketing objectives, marketing strategy and marketing tactics or action programs.
Bottom-up: Small companies use bottom-up marketing, which enables entrepreneurs to find unique tactics to exploit. Once a tactic is discovered, the advertiser can build a strategy around it, focusing all elements of marketing mix on it. The tactic becomes the nail, and the strategy is the hammer that drives it home.
IMC is the process of building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationships with employees, customers, other stakeholders and general public through communication programs using a variety of communication tools. The focus on customers’ role is dominant and makes companies go beyond marketing-oriented to be market-driven. Companies who take the IMC approach identify the most appropriate and effective methods to contact and communicate with customers.
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:16:04 | 显示全部楼层
FINISH~~!10年的考题中这笔记里就能找到标准answer哦s16onion
发表于 2010-2-28 22:23:28 | 显示全部楼层
比去年更新了好多呀,楼主辛苦了
发表于 2010-2-28 22:25:39 | 显示全部楼层
你一直都这么好的!!一生平安啊~~~辛苦了呢
发表于 2010-2-28 22:39:05 | 显示全部楼层
content analysis 有了伐
考完后我都没翻书找过
谁告诉我一下在哪里
 楼主| 发表于 2010-2-28 22:58:38 | 显示全部楼层

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书里貌似没有  我记忆里没有…   我还没翻书s15onion
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